Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, fragility, and a tendency to pathological fractures. In other words, osteoporosis is an increased "porosity" of the skeleton. The disease affects all bones of the skeleton at the same time, and in the simplest living conditions, even as a result of minor injuries, there is a risk of fractures.
Osteoporosis ranks 4th among non-communicable diseases after cardiovascular, oncological and diabetes mellitus. A characteristic feature of osteoporosis is that fractures occur mainly in the vertebrae, in the femoral neck, and in the humerus.
For the normal development of bones, the body must have enough calcium, phosphorus, trace elements, proteins and vitamins. The bulk of bone tissue, about 85%, accumulates in childhood and adolescence. It reaches its maximum by the age of 25. After 35 years of age, bone mass begins to decline. After age 50, the risk of getting sick becomes higher.
The main risk factors that can lead to the development of osteoporosis are:
• smoking and drinking alcohol
• age factor
• belonging to the female sex
• hereditary predisposition
• rheumatic and endocrine diseases
• androgen deficiency in men
• decreased physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle
• malnutrition and restrictive diets;
• drugs (especially hormonals)
Osteoporosis can go unnoticed for a long time. The first symptoms may be chest and lower back pain. With osteoporosis, the patient's height gradually decreases, by the age of 25, a decrease in human height (3 cm) is observed, the figure changes, the spine becomes less mobile.
People at risk are recommended to undergo X-ray densitometry at least once a year.
Endocrynologist Sabina Malikova