Cardiology is the field of medicine that studies the structure, function, and disease of the human heart and blood vessels. This field of medicine includes the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cardiovascular injuries. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiological diseases reduce the quality of life, prescribe medication and surgery; in recent years it is found at a younger age. The main factors leading to cardiovascular disease can be divided into two groups: Controlled and non-controlled.
The first group includes sex (mostly men under 50), age, heredity, and co-morbidities. The second group includes smoking, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, overweight (obesity), inactivity (hypodynamics), stress factors. Each of these causes can result in serious heart pathology. The most dangerous thing is that this process goes on silently, asymptomatically, secretly for years, and manifests itself when heart damage is already formed. It is important to undergo regular medical examinations to prevent cardiac diseases, early detection of existing pathology and start treatment, and to apply preventive methods.
It begins with an objective examination of cardiovascular disease (the story of the disease, the study of the nature and intensity of the patient's complaints) and an overview (the patient's body structure, visual symptoms of heart disease, edema, etc.).
Auscultation of the patient's lungs, heart and large vessels is performed, pulse and blood pressure are measured. Non-invasive instrumental examination of the heart includes electrocardiography, echocardiography, Treadmill test (physical load test) and Holter examination (daily electrocardiography) and cycling ergometry. These tests allow to detect arrhythmias, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart defects, infectious diseases of the heart. Laboratory blood tests are important for more information. If necessary, invasive examination of the heart is performed.