Cardiology

Cardiologic(al) instrumental investigations:
1. ECG –  is an examination method putting down a paper, ventriculoatrial contraction and conduction periods, and electric energies appearing at this time.  This examination mainly aims at making a diagnosis of heart crisis in patients complaining of pains in breast, detecting various rhythm disturbances, studing side effects of medicines which may be harmful for heart, provision of some opinions about some diseases exerting impact on heart, and evaluating other cardiac functions.
2. Echocardiography – is a study and evaluation of heart structure and functions via ultrasound waves . This examination method allows detecting inborn and gained cardiac defects, cardiomyopathies, scar tissues, thrombi and tumors.  In most cases, as an only method, it allows detecting most cardiac diseases. During this examination, X-rays are not used, it is an absolutely harmless and panless method bearing no side effects. It may applied to children and pregnant women. In case if there is a suspicion about any heart disease, e.g. cardiac souffle, tachycardia, breaks of heart work, fainting, dizziness, pains and discomport in heart side, asthma,  intolerance against physical load, fatigue, changes in ECG etc., it is reasanoble to make this examination. During echocardiography, heart valves, cuts and performance of vessels (aorta, pulmonary artery) are seen in the screen. The examination lasts approximately 15-20 minutes. Results are evaluated by a doctor conducting the examination.

Echocardiography is made:

For knowing capacity and size of heart cavities
For checking thickness and performance of cardiac walls
For evaluating structure and functions of halves of heart valves
For finding out functions of defected heart valves
For evaluating cardiac functions
For detection of diseases damaging heart muscles (e.g. cardiomyopathies)
For detection of trombi and tumors inside heart
For exploring congenital cardiac diseases or controlling of surgical operations conducted for these reasons
For evaluating cardiac functions following myocardial infarction
In case if fluid is gathered around heart, for evaluating amount and type of fluid and for finding out structure and thickness of pericardiac layer
For evaluating structure and functions of coronary vessels coming out of heart (aorta, pulmonary artery)
Stress test
Stress Test ( sometime Tredmil or physically loading test) helps us to count workload of a patient’s heart. During this test a human body works much more as a result of which his/her heart heart has to pump blood and much more energy is spent. Any disorders of blood supply in heart-nourishing coronary arteries will be detected by this test. Moreover, this test helps us in identification of degree and level of a physical activity recuired for patients.

When should people undergo Stress test?

Stress test is an examination method for investigating cardio-vascular diseases, detecting whether arrhythmias occur during physical tensions, identifying whether pains in chest and breathlessness are related with heart, identifying effectiveness of a treatment conducted, identifying a degree of impact of physical tension on arterial pressure rises, and also, identifying at which level a patient will start cardio-rehabilitation or other sports program.  Stress test is a valuable examination for identifying anomalies not found via ECG at rest times, but manifesting themselves only during physical tension.

For carrying out a heart controls, Stress Test is usually conduced on a run strip called Tredmil, Veloergometer or pharmacological medicines.

Holter ECG monitoring – is a tracking method of heart rhytms all day long within 24-48 hours through a small device and ECG monitoring. A person continues to live his/her normal life with this device on him/her, and data registered after 24-48 hours are transferred to a computer and a doctor-cardiologist provides anaylisis of results. Rhythm disturbances and pains generated in heart for certain reasons all day long are detected due to this examination.
Pressure monitoring Holter – is a registration of patients’ pressure and pulse values all day long, when having rest and dreaming. So, the device makes it possible to identify in which hours of a day hypertension patients’ pressure values get higher and in general, to make a diagnosis in cases when there is a suspicion about hypertension. A patient wears a small device on him/her for 24 hours a day due to which abovementioned data are registered and then evaluated by a doctor-cardiologist.
Cardiac CT- CT is a noninvasive investigation method thanks to which cardiac and coronary vessels are seen via X-rays. An investigation carrying out by injecting into vena a contrast substence within 4-5 diastole, allows obtaining 3D view of heart and coronary veins. In recent years, CT technology has got advanced seriously and reached almost at level of invasive coronary angiography. Even in some points it is superior than the Invasive method. When to apply to cardiac CT?
In diseases of coronary artery
Coronary Ca Score (risk identification)
Aneurisms
Pulmonary embolism
Sten-graft evaluation purposes
Pulmonary vena problems
For evaluation of EF and lids